An interesting article about addiction therapies research: http://www.lifescientist.com.au/article … therapies/
The results achieved with laboratory rats cannot be replicated with wild rats (always a big issue to watch out for these days), and consideration of addiction pathways needs to bear that in mind -some factor/s in the lab rats lifestyle is altering the expression of their genome and they don't respond in the same way to most events or circumstances. Wild rats are much more difficult to get addicted, although they do like a session now and again. They self-moderate, much like gorillas with fermented fruit, (and what I hypothesize people would do if we had lower resting cortisol).
The correlation of addictive response and a high GI diet is particularly interesting because diet is one of the big differences between these groups of rats of course, but the biggest difference is their resting cortisol levels based on their overall unconscious anxiety. Chasing glutamate responses may only reveal the end chain of a pile of multiple causes, although it may provide another entry point for hacking.
I think this article misses one point that all such articles seem to, and that's the status factor. Lawrence says: “Most people with hypertension will willingly seek treatment, but not all drug addicts will.”
I have to disagree with this. Most people with hypertension don't even know they've got hypertension. Among those who do, in much of the world there is still a huge stigma attached to admitting to “mental problems”, and it isn't there without cause.
A lot of people don't realize the power of this stigma in societies other than their own. The US for example is very open-minded about this sort of thing, it's fine to have a therapist and its fine to get stressed out now and again, but this is a very unusual response compared with most of the rest of the world and I suspect many US dwellers don't know this at all.
In many places having a record of any “mental problems” can render one unemployable and socially shunned. I still meet people who lie about their family medical history because they are too ashamed to admit they have 'a mental' in the family. Others (especially the paranoid) fear that revealing mental distress will make them susceptible and vulnerable to future manipulation by the state (eg, involuntary incarceration). Some cannot reveal their problems for fear of being cut off by their family and losing their inheritance. Others fear losing their jobs, friends, and partners.
Someone known to have “needed therapy” is in many places viewed as “a nutter” and will never really be trusted or taken seriously again. They will be expected to crack under pressure and they will be expected to show violent behavior when they do. They will be expected to have drug problems and criminal tendencies.
This obfuscates the anxiety issue a lot because most folks are terrified that anyone will find out they are “mentally weak”. That leaves those who do go to a doctor and own up to suffering anxiety looking like a tiny minority while the majority of 'silent' sufferers wanders around zonked out on anything it can get its hands on to relieve the symptoms.